Landmark Court Ruling Protects Employee Privacy in Cannabis Use

  • Legal Precedent Established: The Labour Appeal Court's decision in the case of Bernadette Enever v Barloworld Equipment South Africa sets a precedent by affirming an employee's right to privacy and dignity regarding cannabis use, challenging the blanket enforcement of zero-tolerance policies in the workplace.
  • Balancing Rights and Safety: The ruling highlights the need for employers to strike a delicate balance between maintaining a safe working environment and respecting employees' privacy rights. It emphasizes the importance of evidence-based policies that consider impairment and job-related risks rather than solely relying on drug test results.
  • Implications for Employers: Employers are urged to review and revise their substance abuse policies to align with legal standards and evolving societal attitudes towards cannabis. The decision underscores the necessity for nuanced approaches that tailor policies to the specific nature of work and potential risks associated with impairment.

Cannabis Hub

In a landmark decision, the Labour Appeal Court has weighed in on the contentious issue of cannabis use in the workplace, underscoring the delicate balance between an employer’s right to maintain a safe working environment and an employee’s right to privacy and dignity.

The case, Bernadette Enever v Barloworld Equipment South Africa, A Division of Barloworld South Africa (Pty) Ltd, has sparked widespread debate and drawn attention to the evolving legal landscape surrounding cannabis consumption, both within and outside the workplace.


The dispute arose when an employee, Bernadette Enever, was dismissed by her employer, Barloworld Equipment South Africa, for testing positive for cannabis during a routine drug test. Barloworld, in line with its Alcohol and Substance Abuse Policy, maintains a zero-tolerance stance towards drug and alcohol use in the workplace.

Enever, however, contested her dismissal, arguing that her cannabis use occurred outside of work hours, in the privacy of her own home, and did not impair her ability to perform her job duties. She further claimed that her cannabis consumption was medicinal, aiding in the management of anxiety and sleep disorders, and reducing her reliance on prescription medication.

Court Proceedings:

The case progressed to the Labour Appeal Court, where key legal experts, including Audrey Johnson, Kerrie-Lee Olivier, and Tswelopele Ramokoka of ENS Africa, provided analysis and insight into the legal complexities at play.

The central issue before the court was whether Barloworld’s zero-tolerance policy constituted unfair discrimination and violated Enever’s constitutional rights to privacy and dignity.

Labour Appeal Court Decision:

In a significant ruling, the Labour Appeal Court found in favor of Enever, declaring her dismissal as automatically unfair. The court held that Barloworld’s blanket prohibition on cannabis use, without considering factors such as impairment or job-related risks, infringed upon Enever’s dignity and right to privacy.

Key Considerations:

The court’s decision rested on several critical factors:

  1. Distinction between cannabis use and impairment: The court emphasized that a mere positive test for cannabis does not necessarily indicate impairment during work hours or pose a risk in safety-sensitive roles.
  2. Constitutional right to privacy: Citing the Constitutional Court’s 2018 judgment, the court reaffirmed an individual’s right to privacy, including the consumption of cannabis within the confines of one’s home.
  3. Medical cannabis use: Enever’s assertion of using cannabis for medicinal purposes highlighted the growing acceptance of cannabis as a therapeutic agent and underscored the need for nuanced policies accommodating medical cannabis users.
  4. Fairness of zero-tolerance policy: The court questioned the fairness of Barloworld’s zero-tolerance approach, noting the lack of evidence linking Enever’s cannabis use to impaired job performance or safety risks.

Implications for Employers:

The ruling carries significant implications for employers crafting substance abuse policies

1.Balancing rights :Employers must strike a balance between maintaining a safe workplace and respecting employees’ rights to privacy and dignity.

2.Case-specific considerations: Policies should be tailored to account for the nature of the work and potential risks associated with impairment.

3.Evidence-based approach: Employers should rely on objective evidence to assess impairment rather than solely relying on drug test results.

4.Policy review: The decision underscores the need for employers to review and revise their substance abuse policies to align with evolving legal standards and societal attitudes towards cannabis.

    In Conclusion:

    The Labour Appeal Court’s ruling in the Enever case represents a significant milestone in clarifying the legal framework surrounding cannabis use in the workplace. It underscores the importance of nuanced and equitable policies that balance the interests of employers and employees. Moving forward, employers must navigate the complex terrain of drug policy with sensitivity and prudence, ensuring compliance with legal standards while upholding the rights and dignity of their workforce.

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