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2023-11-28 9:17 AM

South Africa’s Economic Turmoil: Rand Volatility and Investor Concerns

  • Economic Turmoil: South Africa faces significant challenges, including escalating stage 6 load shedding, causing the rand to surge past R19 against the dollar. This volatility has intensified concerns among investors, reflecting the country's deep-seated economic struggles.
  • Multiple Crises: Beyond the electricity crisis, the nation grapples with diesel shortages, exacerbating electricity supply issues. Transnet's problems, coupled with logistical bottlenecks, have hindered exports, adding to investor unease. Policy implementations like the National Health Insurance add to the growing concerns.
  • Investor Sentiment and Rand's Performance: Investor confidence has diminished, with foreigners selling off government bonds worth R1.1 billion amidst negative sentiment towards South Africa. The rand's underperformance against other emerging market currencies reflects the country's challenges, despite brief moments of strength earlier in the month.
By Miriam Matoma


In the recent turn of events, South Africa faced a tumultuous week marked by the sudden escalation to stage 6 load shedding. This unexpected shift triggered a surge in the rand, breaching the R19 mark against the dollar, and cast a shadow of concern over investor sentiment amid the nation’s compounding crises.

Throughout this highly volatile period, the rand fluctuated significantly, breaching the R19.00/USD threshold multiple times, soaring to R19.14/USD at its peak as the country grappled with the reemergence of stage six load shedding.

Market conditions exacerbated the situation, fostering a risk-averse environment that led foreign investors to divest from South African bonds. This negative sentiment stemmed from concerns surrounding the country’s deep-seated structural and policy issues.

Annabel Bishop, the chief economist at Investec, highlighted that as load shedding temporarily eased over the weekend, reverting back to stage 3, albeit briefly, market pressures somewhat subsided. Consequently, the rand managed to regain ground below the R19/$ mark, initiating the new week with an average of approximately R18.80.

South Africa’s predicaments extend far beyond currency volatility, encapsulating a series of ongoing crises. Diesel shortages compounded the electricity supply challenges, necessitating the utilization of emergency power sources such as diesel generators and pump storage, as outlined by Minister Kgosientsho Ramokgopa.

Despite some mitigation efforts through diesel deliveries and the reinstatement of certain units, Eskom swiftly reinstated load shedding due to higher-than-expected demand on Monday. Operating at stage 6, the economy suffers losses of up to R1 billion per day, further exacerbating the already substantial loss of hundreds of thousands of jobs, significantly denting the nation’s economic prospects.

However, the challenges faced by South Africa extend beyond the electricity crisis, encompassing systemic issues across various sectors. Transnet, a critical component of the economy, has emerged as another significant source of concern.

“Problems at Transnet have significantly impacted investor confidence,” Bishop noted, emphasizing that logistical bottlenecks, exacerbated by a new truck booking system, hinder exports and contribute to extensive delays, thereby denting demand. Reports from the South African Association of Freight Forwarders (SAAFF) indicate that these bottlenecks cost the economy over R125 million daily.

The woes plaguing Transnet and Eskom are concerning foreign investors, further compounded by the implementation of policies such as the National Health Insurance, which progressed through the National Council of Provinces (NCOP).

“The underperformance of Transnet and Eskom against rising demand intensifies worries about economic growth, fostering a climate of pessimism among investors,” Bishop remarked. The diminishing sentiment is reflected in the divestment of R1.1 billion in government bonds by foreign investors, as confidence in South Africa waned.

Bloomberg’s analysis highlights the rand’s unique position among 23 emerging market currencies, failing to capitalize on the significant monthly rally for the asset class since January. While the rand briefly dipped below R18.00/USD earlier in the month, it currently averages R18.80/USD in Q4.23, oscillating between R18.84/USD and R18.62 on Monday.

South Africa finds itself at a critical juncture, grappling with a confluence of challenges that stretch across its economic, energy, and policy landscapes. As the nation navigates these turbulent times, attention turns toward addressing these systemic issues to regain investor confidence and pave the way for sustainable economic recovery.

Investors and stakeholders closely monitor developments, anticipating proactive measures and policy reforms that offer a glimmer of hope amidst these testing times for South Africa’s economic resilience and growth prospects.

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Miriam Matoma

Miriam is a freelance writer, she covers economics and government news for Rateweb. You can contact her on: Email: miriam@rateweb.co.za Twitter: @MatomaMiriam