Polkadot White Paper

POLKADOT: VISION FOR A HETEROGENEOUS MULTI-CHAIN FRAMEWORK DRAFT 1 DR. GAVIN WOOD FOUNDER, ETHEREUM & PARITY [email protected] Abstract. Present-day blockchain architectures all suffer from a number of issues not least practical means of extensibility and scalability. We believe this stems from tying two very important parts of the consensus architecture, namely canonicality and validity, too […]

Mina Coin Whitepaper

Mina: Economics and Monetary Policy Brad Cohn, Evan Shapiro, and Emre Tekişalp O(1) Labs October 2020 Abstract As cryptocurrencies become more popular and widely used, the cost to verify the blockchain grows proportionally with total transaction throughput and quickly becomes out of reach for most real-world users. In this way, cryptocurrencies can end up victims […]

Ethereum Whitepaper (Updated 2021)

This introductory paper was originally published in 2013 by Vitalik Buterin, the founder of Ethereum, before the project’s launch in 2015. It’s worth noting that Ethereum, like many community-driven, open-source software projects, has evolved since its initial inception. While several years old, we maintain this paper because it continues to serve as a useful reference and […]

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